The research and consultative activity of Co-PLAN is built upon four expertise areas: namely Spatial Planning and Land Development, Urban and Regional Governance, Urban Environmental Management, with Research constituting a cross-cutting, shared feature by all three teams.  Co-PLAN has a long-standing experience and an extensive research portfolio in matters pertaining to our thematic areas, particularly in the realm of environmental assessments, territorial management, preparation of strategic plans, and development strategies; preparation of urban regulatory plans; local government service provision; informal settlements integration, etc. In addition to the four thematic areas, over the years Co-PLAN has been involved in strengthening of civil society, as a cross-cutting approach. This section offers an insight into the portfolios of each unit.